Space exploration is beneficial to mankind in many ways. It should not be viewed as a waste of resources, time, or money. There are different arguments concerning the issue whether space exploration is a waste or not.
Space exploration and astronomy in general allow us to learn more about our home, the Earth. We are now aware of the existence of other planets, stars, and galaxies that exist beyond it. As humanity develops, so does the technological exploration that improves our abilities to travel to space, which are beneficial to us despite the fact that many opponents do not agree here.
Counterarguments only consider the disadvantages that come with space exploration – for example, the expensive cost of operations. But we should take into consideration that space exploration comes together with important technological improvements. Heavy reliance on technology triggers extensive research that develops technical knowledge that is applied not only in space exploration. Doeden (2011) asserts that space exploration involves investigation of physical conditions in space and on stars, planets, and their moons using artificial satellites. Astronomy encourages future generations to focus on what is beyond the Earth whether for fun or scientific discoveries. In addition, it creates sufficient awareness about what is around our planet.
Public contention and politics have over the years become a big challenge for space exploration. It is a political problem because of the high level of resources required for the related projects. Some members of the public ask why it is necessary to waste their money on space while it can be spent for some other purposes. This is an indicator of the lack of knowledge about the benefits of space exploration. Not many people remember that owing to astronomy and space exploration, we have learned that there is water on the Moon, meaning that there is a possibility of existence of life. The efforts in this case were applied for the overall benefit of mankind (Morris, 2012). Competition to travel to the Moon was at first a political issue that became competition between countries (Sadeh, 2002).
Space exploration has the potential of discovering new concepts and phenomena about space. These activities resolve mysteries about everything that surrounds the Earth. Through the exploration of space, we may discover resources that will help us in future – for example, minerals and rocks (Kirkland, 2010). This would be a good investment because of the pressure on the existing resources on Earth. And it is not just a fulfillment of the human appetite for adventure; rather, there is a lot to benefit from. Stott says that the “majority of those against space exploration do not understand its benefits to humanity” (Stott, 2010).
Space exploration brings together different people from various research and science fields and puts them to work on some very difficult problems. The result in this case is seen in useful inventions and discoveries. Thus, space exploration triggers technological advancement and is worth its cost because it benefits the people. Without knowledge of our surroundings we become vulnerable to threats. The Sun, asteroids, and other things around us can pose a great threat. Space exploration gives us better understanding of all the possible dangers we face and our relationship with things like the Sun and the Moon. A number of arguments against space exploration show that we do not have enough money to waste on such activities. Underfunding of space exploration programs leads to poor results. Space travel costs millions of dollars for a single trip. It is possible to pay millions to go to space adventure tours. For tours that are more than just adventure, the cost is justified (Morris, 2012).
The satellites in space help us predict any hazardous weather conditions and provide services such as television and communications. Without space exploration, television and communication services would not be as they are. Angelo shows that space programs also lead to other cutting edge technology developments that critics still take for granted – for example, long distance communication and smoke detectors. Cost should not be a concern in such important matters. Space exploration has pros and cons in this case. It is necessary to determine the level of disadvantages as opposed to advantages in terms of expenditures.
The cost of space exploration is high, but the return is even higher, thus making space exploration well worth the cost. Those who are convinced that it is all about wasteful adventure lack knowledge about basic things like telecommunication satellites in space. It is true, we have to settle the matters down here before focusing on those outside…
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The Modes of Discourse—Exposition, Description, Narration, Argumentation (EDNA)—are common paper assignments you may encounter in your writing classes. Although these genres have been criticized by some composition scholars, the Purdue OWL recognizes the wide spread use of these approaches and students’ need to understand and produce them.
Contributors: Jack Baker, Allen Brizee, Elizabeth Angeli
Last Edited: 2013-03-10 11:46:44
What is an argumentative essay?
The argumentative essay is a genre of writing that requires the student to investigate a topic; collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and establish a position on the topic in a concise manner.
Please note: Some confusion may occur between the argumentative essay and the expository essay. These two genres are similar, but the argumentative essay differs from the expository essay in the amount of pre-writing (invention) and research involved. The argumentative essay is commonly assigned as a capstone or final project in first year writing or advanced composition courses and involves lengthy, detailed research. Expository essays involve less research and are shorter in length. Expository essays are often used for in-class writing exercises or tests, such as the GED or GRE.
Argumentative essay assignments generally call for extensive research of literature or previously published material. Argumentative assignments may also require empirical research where the student collects data through interviews, surveys, observations, or experiments. Detailed research allows the student to learn about the topic and to understand different points of view regarding the topic so that she/he may choose a position and support it with the evidence collected during research. Regardless of the amount or type of research involved, argumentative essays must establish a clear thesis and follow sound reasoning.
The structure of the argumentative essay is held together by the following.
- A clear, concise, and defined thesis statement that occurs in the first paragraph of the essay.
In the first paragraph of an argument essay, students should set the context by reviewing the topic in a general way. Next the author should explain why the topic is important (exigence) or why readers should care about the issue. Lastly, students should present the thesis statement. It is essential that this thesis statement be appropriately narrowed to follow the guidelines set forth in the assignment. If the student does not master this portion of the essay, it will be quite difficult to compose an effective or persuasive essay.
- Clear and logical transitions between the introduction, body, and conclusion.
Transitions are the mortar that holds the foundation of the essay together. Without logical progression of thought, the reader is unable to follow the essay’s argument, and the structure will collapse. Transitions should wrap up the idea from the previous section and introduce the idea that is to follow in the next section.
- Body paragraphs that include evidential support.
Each paragraph should be limited to the discussion of one general idea. This will allow for clarity and direction throughout the essay. In addition, such conciseness creates an ease of readability for one’s audience. It is important to note that each paragraph in the body of the essay must have some logical connection to the thesis statement in the opening paragraph. Some paragraphs will directly support the thesis statement with evidence collected during research. It is also important to explain how and why the evidence supports the thesis (warrant).
However, argumentative essays should also consider and explain differing points of view regarding the topic. Depending on the length of the assignment, students should dedicate one or two paragraphs of an argumentative essay to discussing conflicting opinions on the topic. Rather than explaining how these differing opinions are wrong outright, students should note how opinions that do not align with their thesis might not be well informed or how they might be out of date.
- Evidential support (whether factual, logical, statistical, or anecdotal).
The argumentative essay requires well-researched, accurate, detailed, and current information to support the thesis statement and consider other points of view. Some factual, logical, statistical, or anecdotal evidence should support the thesis. However, students must consider multiple points of view when collecting evidence. As noted in the paragraph above, a successful and well-rounded argumentative essay will also discuss opinions not aligning with the thesis. It is unethical to exclude evidence that may not support the thesis. It is not the student’s job to point out how other positions are wrong outright, but rather to explain how other positions may not be well informed or up to date on the topic.
- A conclusion that does not simply restate the thesis, but readdresses it in light of the evidence provided.
It is at this point of the essay that students may begin to struggle. This is the portion of the essay that will leave the most immediate impression on the mind of the reader. Therefore, it must be effective and logical. Do not introduce any new information into the conclusion; rather, synthesize the information presented in the body of the essay. Restate why the topic is important, review the main points, and review your thesis. You may also want to include a short discussion of more research that should be completed in light of your work.
A complete argument
Perhaps it is helpful to think of an essay in terms of a conversation or debate with a classmate. If I were to discuss the cause of World War II and its current effect on those who lived through the tumultuous time, there would be a beginning, middle, and end to the conversation. In fact, if I were to end the argument in the middle of my second point, questions would arise concerning the current effects on those who lived through the conflict. Therefore, the argumentative essay must be complete, and logically so, leaving no doubt as to its intent or argument.
The five-paragraph essay
A common method for writing an argumentative essay is the five-paragraph approach. This is, however, by no means the only formula for writing such essays. If it sounds straightforward, that is because it is; in fact, the method consists of (a) an introductory paragraph (b) three evidentiary body paragraphs that may include discussion of opposing views and (c) a conclusion.
Longer argumentative essays
Complex issues and detailed research call for complex and detailed essays. Argumentative essays discussing a number of research sources or empirical research will most certainly be longer than five paragraphs. Authors may have to discuss the context surrounding the topic, sources of information and their credibility, as well as a number of different opinions on the issue before concluding the essay. Many of these factors will be determined by the assignment.